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A woman who had been consuming alcohol excessively during her pregnancy had a child with cleft palate and upper lip. These presentations are indicative of some chromosomal anomalies. What process do they result from?

Treatment of a patient with hereditary form of immunodeficiency involved gene therapy: the enzyme gene was introduced into the cells of the patient by means of a retrovirus. What property of the genetic code allows to use retroviruses as vectors of functional genes?

Microscopy of dental plaque revealed unicellular organisms. Their cytoplasm had two distinct layers, barely visible core, wide pseudopodia. The patient is most likely to have:

In Western Europe nearly half of all congenital malformations occur in the children conceived in the period, when pesticides were used extensively in the region. Those congenital conditions result from the following influence:

A young couple has a child with encephalopathy. A doctor determined this disease to be caused by mitochondrial DNA disorder. In what way are mitochondrial pathologies inherited?

Genealogical study of a family with hereditary enamel hypoplasia has revealed that the disease occurs in every generation. In women, the anomaly occurs more frequently than in men. Male patients only pass this trait to their daughters. What type of inheritance takes place in this case?

Nucleolus organizers of human chromosomes 13-15, 21, 22 include about 200 gene clusters that synthesize RNA. These chromosomal regions contain the information on the following type of RNA:

Phenylketonuria is a disease caused by a recessive gene that is localized in an autosome. Parents are heterozygous for this gene. They already have two sons with phenylketonuria and one healthy daughter. What is the probability that their fourth child will have the disease too?

In the course of evolution there developed molecular mechanisms for correction of damaged DNA molecules. This process is called:

Patients suffering from xeroderma pigmentosum have extremely photosensitive skin due to disrupted excision repair. Specify the process that is affected in such patients:

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