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In some areas of South Africa many people have sickle cell disease characterized by red blood cells that assume an abnormal sickle shape due to the substitution of glutamic acid for valine in the hemoglobin molecule. What is the cause of this disease?

In the perianal folds of a 5-year-old girl mother found white worms causing itch and anxiety, and took them to the laboratory. The study revealed white filament-like helminths 0,5-1 cm long, with pointed, sometimes twisted, ends. What diagnosis can be made?

A child presents with body shortness, mental deficiency, mongoloid palpebral fissures, epicanthal fold, enlarged grooved tongue protruding from the mouth, high palate, maldentition, diastema, cross striation of lips. What hereditary disease are these presentations typical for?

Microscopy of perianal folds scrape has revealed colourless eggs in the shape of asymmetrical ovals sized 50x23 micrometers. Name the kind of helminth.

In the course of evolution there developed molecular mechanisms for correction of damaged DNA molecules. This process is called:

A woman who had been consuming alcohol excessively during her pregnancy had a child with cleft palate and upper lip. These presentations are indicative of some chromosomal anomalies. What process do they result from?

During reproduction of some RNA-containing viruses that cause tumors in animals, genetic information can be transmitted in the opposite direction from the RNA to the DNA via a specific enzyme. The enzyme of reverse transcription is called:

Cytogenetic examination of a patient with dysfunction of the reproductive system revealed normal karyotype 46,XY in some cells, but most cells have Klinefelter’s syndrome karyotype - 47,ХХУ. Such phenomenon of cell inhomogeneity is called:

A shepherd who has tended sheep together with dogs consulted a doctor about pain in his right subcostal area, nausea, vomiting. Roentgenoscopy revealed a tumour-like formation. What kind of helminthiasis might be suspected?

Cytochemical investigation has revealed high content of hydrolytic enzymes in cytoplasm. This phenomenon indicates high activity of the following organelles:

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